We plan to investigate at high-resolution and multiproxy past environmental conditions and human impact focusing primarily on mining-pollution evidence in several key areas from the Romanian Carpathians, and at the Holocene scale. The research aims will be addressed and validated through high-resolution elemental chemical and isotopic analyses in order to disentangle signatures related to natural cycling of elements over millennia, as well as anthropogenically-derived contributions through resource exploitation (land, forestry, ores), combustion, mining and smelting activities. To our knowledge, this project is one the first such interdisciplinary undertaking in Romanian research, and includes conjectural chemical, isotopic, chronological and paleoenvironmental investigations of peat profiles and lake sediments. The expected results, in conjunction with existing geological, archaeological and archaeometric evidence, shall provide a comprehensive assessment on the history of metal-use development in the Carpathian region, estimates of baseline conditions, as well as new palaeoclimatological data. The expected results will have a strong scientific and societal impact, as it would be for the first time that links/feedbacks between natural causes and human impact would be explored in such a way in Romanian palaeoenvironmental research.